Location and geography
Borders

Turkey extends geographically across two continents. Anatolia, the Asian part of the Turkish territory, occupies about 97% of the area. The European part is eastern Thrace and covers about 3% of the country's surface (23.623 km²). The national borders of Turkey have a total length of approx. 9.850 km, of which 7.200 km are bordered by the sea. In the west of Turkey lies the Aegean Sea, in the south the Mediterranean and in the north the Black Sea. In addition Turkey shares with eight neighboring countries a border with a total length of 2.648 km. It borders Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest, Georgia to the northeast, Azerbaijan and Armenia, Iran to the east, and Iraq and Syria to the south. Especially the north of Turkey is one of the strongest earthquake regions in the world and has been repeatedly shaken by earthquakes in recent years. Since a certain chronological plate tectonics of the earthquakes in northern Turkey is to be found, experts assume that in the foreseeable future, Istanbul could be shaken by a major quake. The last major earthquakes in Kocael province were less than 100 km from Istanbul.

The regions of Turkey: Western landscape Turkey is divided into seven geographical areas: Marmara region Ege, Black Sea region, Central Anatolia, Mediterranean region, Eastern Anatolia and Southeast Anatolia. These regions differ greatly in terms of vegetation and weather conditions. Thrace is located west of the Bosphorus on the European side. On the Thracian plateau, the river Evros forms the border with Greece. East of the Bosphorus lies the Marmara region. The Sea of ​​Marmara separates Europe from Asia and the Aegean Sea from the Black Sea. To the Mediterranean, the Dardanelles extend for a length of 60 km. The two headlands are widest at Çanakkale with up to 4 km. On the Bosphorus lies the million-metropolis of Istanbul. The landscape in this region is hilly and covered by bushes and forests. The fertile farmland gives way to a steppe landscape in the east. The region is the economic center of Turkey. The city of Bursa is a health resort and famous for its sulfur and thermal springs. It lies at the foot of the Uludag Mountains. The mountain is a popular destination all year round. The Aegean region is also intensively used for agriculture. The strongly hilly landscape stretches along the west coast between Çanakkale and Bodrum. West Coast between Çanakkale and Bodrum. The coastal region is one of the best developed tourist regions in Turkey. In addition to cypresses and olive trees, grapevines shape the landscape. In this region are many ancient buildings from the time of the Greek settlement, z. Troy, Assos (Behramkale), Pergamon (Bergama), Ephesus, (Efes), Miletus, Didyma, and Euromos.

The regions of Turkey: Anatolia

The Black Sea region covers the northern coastal strip of Turkey. It is characterized by a mild, humid climate, and on its mountainous landscape, large forests extend. On the very fertile soil tea, tobacco, corn and hazelnuts are grown. The central Anatolian region includes the inner Anatolian plateaus. Here are the salt lake Tuz Gölü and mountain ranges, which rise in places up to 3.900 m. To the east lies Cappadocia, which is famous for its tuff-driven caves and rock churches in mountain peaks of up to 2.000 m. Inner Anatolia is dominated by a steppe landscape and is one of the driest areas of Anatolia. In the region around Tuz Gölü, the landscape takes on a desert-like appearance. Therefore, agricultural use in this region is less developed than in the regions mentioned above. Wheat, barley and fruits are grown here. The climate of this region is characterized by hot, dry summers with cold evenings. Winters are very cold with temperatures below -20 degrees Celsius. The Mediterranean region is bordered to the north by the Taurus Mountains and to the east by the Amanos Mountains. Citrus fruit, bananas, tomato, peanut and cotton are grown in this region. Southeast Anatolia is the oldest cultural region of Turkey. It is surrounded by the Taurus Mountains. Here the two rivers Euphrates and Tigris are flowing. Agriculturally, this region is used by wheat, barley, wine, olive and pistachios. In addition to mountain ranges, the region east of the Euphrates is characterized by a high plateau. For further agricultural cultivation, more than 22 dams will be built as part of the Southeast Anatolia project along the Euphrates and Tigris.

The highest mountains
  • Great Arara (Büyük Agri Dagi) - 5165 m
  • Buzul Dagi - 4116 m
  • Little Ararat (Küçük Agri Dagi) - 3925 m
  • Kaçkar Dagi - 3932 m
  • Erciyes Dagi - 3917 m
  • Süphan Dagi - 4058 m
  • Uludag - 2543 m
The main rivers
  • Kizilirmak
  • Firat (Euphrat)
  • Sakarya
  • Murat
  • Tigris
  • Seyhan
  • Ceyhan
  • Göksu
  • Çoruh
  • Great meander (Büyük Menderes)
Lakes of Turkey
  • Vansee 3713 km²
  • Tuz Gölü 1500 km² (Salzsee)
  • Beysehir Gölü 656 km²
  • Egridir Gölü 468 km²
  • Aksehir Gölü 353 km²
  • Iznik Gölü 298 km²
Major islands
  • Gökçeada 279 km²
  • Marmara Island 117 km²
  • Bozcaada 36 km²
  • Uzunada 25 km²
  • Alibey 23 km²
  • Pasalimani 21 km²
  • Avsar 21 km